t of Pic lis
STATE OF FLORIDA,
FOR THE YEAR ENDING
SEPTEMBER 30TH, 1891
— OP —
ALBERT J. HUSSELL,
Superintendent of Public Instruction,
— FOB THE —
SCHOOL YEAR ENDING SEPT. 30, 1891.
Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Office op the
State Superintendent of Pubho Instruction,
Tallahassee, Dec. 30th, 1891.
To his Excellency y Governor F. P., Fleming .-
Sib — I have the honor to comply with the requirements
of the law, and submit my annual report of the Department
of Public Instruction of the State of Florida for the yeai-
1890-1891, ending September 30th, 1891.
Very respectfully yours,
ALBERT J. RUSSELL,
State Superintendent Public Instruction.
Continued success and advance characterize the public
schools of the State in every county. The people are alive
to the importance of the work, and properly value the privi-
leges and opportunities afforded, and are using them to the
Improvement, wherever possible, iB the manifest spirit
everywhere, as to patrons, school officers, teachers and pupils.
The number of schools continue to steadily increase at the de-
mand of the people and the growth and increase of the pop-
The interest on the part of the patrons of the schools,
the parents and guardians of the youth is Btill increasing,
which largely tends to the benefit and success of the schools,
and impresses favorably both teacher and pnpil with the
responsibility and importance of their work.
Steadily does the improvement in school houses, furni-
ture and general equipments, aad appliances and facilities,
advance with the growth and popularity of the system, so
that the work of the teacher and the pupil is made more
cheerful and lovable, and the school bouse and grounds have
their attractions, drawing upon the affections and enlisting
the pride of all interested, instead ot, as in the past, repelling
and becoming a place of dread and sombre endurance.
The number of schools has been increased fifteen during
the year, making the number operated during the year 2,343;
the number of teachers has been accordingly increased 131,
making the number now employed in the State 2,641.
The enrollment of pupils has increased proportionately, and
the daily attendance has largely increase'!, and the public
school work and spirit may be truthfully said to be fully
alive to the importance of every feature of the enterprise, and ,
doubtless with such fostering care as the" State is certainly
called upon to give her schools, improvement and advance-
ment upon all lines will continue until the State will move
abreast with the foremost of the States of the Union in the
It is difficult to state or calculate the result of this work
if faithfully prosecuted upon the intelligence, virtue
and refinement of the people in suet* eding generations. One
thing is beyond doubt or cavil, there is now no reason why
the children of to-day, every one, may not receive sufficient
education as to make them intelligent citizens, capable of ap-
preciating good government and lovers of order and peace; for
the very poorest have the school house near their door, with-
out price, and the opportunity is extended to the higher
branches of learning, equally free and without price. School
officers and teachers, warmly seconded by the people, have
resolved that ignorance and illiteracy shall be driven from
our border*, and virtue, intelligence and good order reign
The value of school sites and buildings has very largely
increased during the past ten years. For the yeur 1891 the
State Superintendent reported the value of school buildings
to be $89,868 ; for the year 1891 it is my pleasure to report
the same value at $497,240,07, Bhowing afl increase of value
to the amount of $407,381.07. This is oue of the best evi-
dences oi the permanent growth and establishment of interest
is the public school system.
COMPAB1SON O* YEARS.
1889- "BO. 1890-"B1. Laercue.
Number of schools, 2,333 2,348 15
Number of white schools, 1,746 1,747
Number negro schools, 587 601
Number teachers employed, 2,510 2,641 131
Number white teachers, 1,849 1,956 107
Number negro teachers, 661 685 24
Amount tax raised by counties, 1891, . . $450,334 43
Amount tax raised by counties, 1890, . . 399,755 56
Increase of 1891 over 1890, . . . $50,578 87
Amount apportioned proceeds sales of land for
the year 1891, $33,970 22
Amount apportioned from the constitutional tax
of one mill, 80,000 00
Amount county tax, 1891, .... $450,334 43
Amount land proceeds, 1891, . . . . 33,970 22
Amount one mill tax, 1891, . . . 80,000 00
Total expenditure for common schools, 1891, $564,304 65
Total expenditure for common schools, 1890, 516,532 70
Increase over 1890, $47,771 95
Taking the entire population of the State to be 400,000, and
the number of schools 2,348, it will give a school opened and
operated for every 170 of the people.
COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS.
These high schools are being inaugurated and highly suc-
cessfully operated in the counties, and wherever they are in-
stituted are doing an excellent work, very gratifying to the
patrons, and affording an opportunity for advanced education,
which many of our youth would never have without them.
The course of study in these schools is designed to be very
practical, fitting the student for practical life, in whatever
business vocation he may pursue.
We claim that an equity prevails in this idea of county
high schools, for white the principle that underlies the public
school 'System is that the State should fit her citizenship for
the duties and responsibilities she imposes upon them, and
that in doing this she compels ihe rich to pay largely for the
poor, and the prosperous for the adversely situated, it is but
right and just, thr»t the large taxpayer should have the op-
portunity of completing liisKfhildren'-- education at least as for
as the high school course, without being compelled to extra
expense of payi g for it; elsewhere, and is provided for in
these county high schools. Happily for the people of Flori-
da they can go mrther in the education of their youths with-
out cost of tuition through a college tducation in the colleges,
seminaries and normil school*, which are as free to the peo-
ple as are the common schools, and these comity high schools
are preparatory To an entrance into the college classes.
The schools are being thoroughly graded throughout the
State, which is greatly improving tLe rytketa and work. The
grades at present are eight in number, embracing a common
school cours>- of spelling, reading, writing', arithmetic, gram-
mar, U. S. history, geography, composition and elementary
physiology, with special reference to ti e elf cts of alcoholic
stimulants and narcotics upon the human character and sys
tern. The pupil entering at ibe legal school ag- of'G 3 P ears,
has eight years in this course, finishing at the age of U years
prepared to < .-r upon the high school course of 4 years, or
if compelled to enter he ranks of the bread winners, he is fit-
ted for the ordinary educational demands of his sphere of life
and besides holds the key that unlocks the store house of
knowledge to his unstinted d is ires and aims. ,
It is the purpose of the State Board of Education, in ad-
dition to the above, to press the effort at manual training as
fur as practicable, so that all the youths of the State may par-
take of this useful, and, to the large majority of them, so es-
The educational institutions of the State are as follows:
The Florida Agricultural an. I Mechanical College and Exper-
imental Station, located at Lake City; ihe West Floiida
Seminary located at Tallahassee ; The East Florida Seminary
located at Gainesville ; The State Normal and Business Col-
lege located at DeFuniak Springs ; The Florida Normal and
Industrial College for negro pupils located at Tallahassee, and
the Deaf Mute and Bliml Institute located at St. Augustine-
Of these the Institute for the Blind and Deaf Mutes and
the Florida State Normal and Business College at DeFuniak
Springs are supported and maintained solely by appropria-
tions made by the Legislature of the State. The Florida
Normal and Industrial College for negro students in part by
appropriation from the State annually, but largely by a con-
gressional appropriation known as the Morrill Bill fund ; The
seminaries are mainly supported by the proet eds of sales of
the lands granted by the United States, and special appropria-
tions by the State. The West Florida Seminary is also a
beneficiary of a bequest made by tbe late Judge j. P. West-
cott of Tallahassee. These schools are each excellent insti-
tutions of learning, having excellent faculties, and are well
equipped for their respective work.
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE.
This institution is located at Lake City, in the fertile and
thriving county- of Columbia, whose people are widely known
for their generous hospitality, refinement and virtue, and its
excellent health. Its faculty consists of nine members, em-
bracing the chairs of political economy and logic, rallit try sci-
ence, tactics and civil engineering; physics and ch
mathematics, English language and literature, manual train-
ing, Latin and history, and biology and natural s. icnce.
It will be seen that ihi* college, while it proposes to ^ive
a thorough college and literary course, will also devote time
and energy in giving a full and intelligent course of instruc-
tion In wood and metal work, in industrial training and agri-
culture, theoretical and practical. It thus aims the
demands of the intensely practical age in which wt are living
and the thoroughly practical country of jrble i are citi-
zensA Tuition is free, and the study of the Board f Trustees
antff acuity is to reduce other unavoidable expenw - to a min-
I take pleasure in r fening to the statement below com-
ing from the President of the college, Prof. .1'. L. Kern :
State AutiicuLTtniAL College, 1
Lake City, Fi a , December 30, 1391. \
Mori. Albert J. Rusarfl, Slate •Superinfen'knt Public instruc-
tion, T'lltokaxsee, Fla „■
Sir — Replying to your request for a brief sketch of the
Florida Agricultural College, giving its present condition
and work in outline, I have the "honor of submitting the fol-
The Agricultural and Mechanical College as it is prpu-
larly styled, is now in its eighth year. It is supported by an
annual income from the general government of about $18,-
000. The organization is complete and systematic, providing
for a two-years' preparatory course and four-year colle-
giate courses as follows : An agricultural course, (recently
shortened to three years) ; a mechanical course ; a classical
and scientific course and a civil engineering course. Each of
these courses lead to an appropriate degree. The govern-
ment of students is a wholesome form of military discipline
under the charge of Lieut. C. C. Ballon, Sixteenth United
States Infantry, who is a graduate of the United States Mil-
itary academy at West Point, The Board of Trustees con-
sists of ten of the leading citizens of the State, all of whom
are highly educated and occupy prominent official and social
positions. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction,
the State Treasurer and the State Commissioner of Agricul-
ture are ex-offlcio members of this board.
BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
Hon. A. J. Russell, Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion and ex-oflicio President, Tallahassee.
Hon. L. B. Wombwell, Secretary. Tallahassee.
Hon. Patrick Houbtoun, of Leon, Tallahassee.
Hon. James E. Young, of Columbia, Lake City.
Hon. H. W. Long, of Marion, Marcel.
Hon. J. N". C. Stockton, of Duval, Jacksonville.
Gen. W. D* Barnes, of Jackson, Mananna.
Hon. J. W. Trammels, of Polk, Lakeland.
Major C. H. Smith, of Madison, Madison.
Hon. E. J. Triat, of Duval, ex-offioio Treasurer, Talla-
The faculty is as follows :
F. L. Kern, A. M., President, Political Economy and
Lieut. Charles C. Ballod, 16th Infantry U. S. Army,
Commandant of Cadets, Military Science, Tactics and Civil
J. N. Whisneb, A. M-, Department of Agriculture, The-
oretical and Practical.
J. M. Pickel, A. M., Ph. D., Department of Physics and
H. P. Bay a, (Virginia Military Institute), Department
W. W. Seals, A. M-, Department of English Language
H. C. Powers, Department of Manual Training, E. J.
Bending, Assistant in Manual Training.
J. M. Stuaet, A. B., Department of Latin and History,
Frank W. Piokell, A. B., M. S,, Department of Biology
and Natural Science.
A. W. Bitting, Veterinary Science.
J. C. Martin, Je., A. M., Principal Sub-collegiate De-
D, L. McSwaih, L. I., Assistant Sub-collegiate Depart-
J. Franklin Appbll, M. D., College Physician.
J, E. Futch, Librarian.
W. H. Pebry, Steward.
These gentleman were alt especially educated for the pO;
sitions they occupy and have had years of experience in their
chosen work. Each is a competent and devoted master of his
department and does work that wilt compare favorably with
any college of the kind in the South. There are six college
buildings all equipped and adapted to the work of the various
departments, dormitory and boarding. For applied work in
agriculture, fertile land, tools, seeds and fertilizers are pro-
vided, and careful instruction furnished all who apply for this
course. The mechanic art hall is equipped with machinery,
tools and material for wood work and work in metals,
The chemical and physical laboratory has an outfit of ap-
paratus valued at several thousand dollars. The museum cost
over two thousand dollars and represents a comprehensive
collection for the use of students studying natural history
and biology. The library has nearly three thousand dollars'
worth of well-selected reference books and encyclopedias and
a file of nearly all the newspapers published in the State,
Of the 105 students enrolled thus far this session, about
a Score have either been dismissed for failure in discipline or
in studies or have withdrawn for reasons of their own. About
one-half are in the preparatory department but notwithstand-
ing this fact, it is still true that a much larger number of
young men are in the collegiate courses than are found in any
other college in the State. Considering the age of the col-
lege and the population of the State, we have as large an at-
tendance as any similar college in the South. Medicine and
medical attendance are furnished free of charge, but there is
very little sickness at the college this year.
The matriculation fee is $4 per term, which entitles the
student to fuel and furnished room. Text books are furnished
on a rental plan. Board is $10 per month. The annual cost
per student, including a good uniform, is less than $125 per
session of nine months.
The class of students now in attendance 'is an improve-
ment over those of previous years in the matter of interest
and progress, and tenacity and general ability. This mny be
due to the better disciplinary management, and the closer
classification of all grades.
The esprit decorps is far better than formerly, and a
rather better moral tone prevails among the higher grades of
students, some of whom have radically reformed their ways
since coming here, and all sh..w great improvement.
The unwise and unpatriotic policy ou the part of some of
sending their sons to other states to be educated, is without
excuse now that a home institution so well merits the patron-
age of all. Respectfully,
F. L. Kebs,
WE6T FLOEID.Y SKlflMARY.
TLis excellent school is situated at the Capital City of
the Stare, on beautiful grounds, and lias just occupied its
new building, an imposing and commodious edifice, modelled
in modern adaptabilities to school use, and supplied with all
nesceseary convenience* and facilities.
It has an excellent Faculty, is well equipped and expects
xpeedily to enlarge the appliances, library and other aids and
helps ; tuition is free, hoard reasonable, and there should be in
attendance upon tins excellent institution at least three
hundred students; both sexes are admitted into the *ame
courses of study and a lady of rare qualifications is a member
of the Faculty.
I take pleasure in inserting the following letter from its
President, Col. G. M. Edgar:
JTallauassee Fl.i., December 30, 1881.
Son. A. J. Busaell, Stale Superintendent of Publk- Instruction:
Dear Sir — In response to your request t" me to give a
brief statement of the condition of this institution, I beg
leave to report that the work done in the past year has been
as strong as in any previous year of my administration, and I
trust will be followed by as good results. Though the high
standard which has been maintained has had a tendency to
eliminate pupils who are not ambitious to become scholars,
the patron;) ge has been very fair — the number of pupils in at-
tendance having averaged ab^ut seventy-five sii.ee my last
annual report. In June last five young men and two young
ladies were graduated with the degree of A. B. They are the
first full graduates the institution has turned out. Desiring
to make this the Literary and Classical college of the State ,
we have not trenched upon the sphere of the Agricultural and
Mechanical college by* teaching scientific, industrial and
technical conrBes, but have sought rather to unite with
thorough instruction in English, Latin, Greek, the modem
languages and Mathematics as liberal training in the Physical
and Mental Sciences, Political Economy, History and Civics,
as can profitably be given in six years. It may be justly claimed
that the institution has gained a vantage ground which, if held,
will ensure to it a wide sphere of usefulness at no distant
day. It offers the youth of the State a complete literary
course free of charge for tuition. Its location is unsurpassed
for healthfulness. It is surrounded by a community of refined
people. The new building recently completed, is one of tliu
most beautiful and commodious school buildings in the State,
affording ample study halls, Ucture rooms and laboratories
for the purposes of instruction. Students of both sexes may
obtain board in private families - at reasonable rates. Talla-
hassee is easy of access, too, from both the Eastern and
"Western portions of the State.'
With these and other opportunities fur culture offered to
them by the State, it wnuld seem that even youth of moder-
ate means are without excuse if they do not secure a suitable
training far their life work. Again invoking your aid in the
effort to extend the usefulness of the institution,
I am respectfully,
Geo. M. Edgar.
THE BAST FLOBrbA SEMI VARY
Is located in the ln-art of the ppninsular portion o! the State,
in the city of Gainesville, full of life, push at id healthful
growth, calculated to stimulate the youih to great activity and
to awak" his :■ Dilution to noble purposes.
The discipline of the seminary is military, and military
science and tactics are taught and make a principal feature,
developing both a fine physical and an honorable manhood.
Its literary and business curriculum are both of an advanced
character," and the seminsry is highly appreciated by its pa-
trons, the people of the district east of the Suwannee river,
while there are students annunlly from several Stales of the
It has a line seminary building, barracks and campus, and
is well prepared to do the work, laid out in its annnual cata-
logues. Its President, Col K. P. Cater, writes as ful'owa of
its work of the present yea
* East Florida Seminary, >
Gainesville, Fla., December 30, 1891. f
Major A. J. Russell, State Superintendent Public Instruction,
Tallahassee, Flo. .■
My Dear Sir— In accordance with your request 1 here-
with hand you brief notes of the work done at the seminary
during the year 1891.
With kind regards and best wishes, I am,
Very truly yours,
Edwin P. Cater,
Superintendent E. F. S.
During the year 1891 there has been in attendance at
East Florida Seminary students from twenty-three counties
of Florida, and from seven other States.
The work done by the students is of the most practical
and helpful character, as is evidenced by the ease with which
the graduates secure lucrative positions of all sorts, and by
the satisfactory manner in which they conduct and sustain
themselves in those positions.
In May, 1891, twelve young men and one young lady
were awarded diplomas by the seminary, and of this number
several are doing good work in the public schools of the State,
and others hive secured good positions as book-keepers in
banking and other business houses.
In addition to the ordinary curriculum, the students have
the opportunity of thorough training in type-writing and ste-
The teachers are excellent in their several departments
and are doing earnest and successful work.
The mess-hall is in excellent bands and the students are
entirely satisfied with the fare provided them.
The cost of attendance at the seminary is very moderate.
THE FLORIDA STATS NORMAL COLLEGE.
This excellent school is situated at DeFuniak Springs,
in Walton county, West Florida, a locality famed for its ex-
cellent health and the character of its people. The work of
this institution is, as its title tells, to prepare young men and
women to teach in the public schools of the Stale. It is sup-
ported by the State and like all the schools in Florida oper-
ated by public funds, is free of tuition charges.
The course of study embraces two years' work and there
are two classes, the junior and senior.
The junior class are in the following studies : rhetoric and
composition, general history, mathematics, Latin, physics,
The senior class are in the following : English literature,
history and e^say writing, Latin, mathematics, chemistry,
physics, astronomy, drawing, and civil government and Flor-
ida school lawg.
It was hoped that many students would be fully prepared
in public schools to enter freely upon this coarse, but iu this
the faculty have been disappointed and it has be come neces-
sary to add an Academic Department, in which students are re-
viewed or prepared in the following course : English grammar,
geography, United States history, arithmetic, penmanship and
drawing, elocution and dictation and book-keeping, embrac-
ing the work of one school year.
For the maintenance of discipline the college relies prin-
cipally upon appeals to the moral sense of the students. No
student who is insensible to such appeals will be permitted to
remain in the institution.
The governing board consists of the Governor of the
State, who is president. The State Superintendent of Public
Instruction, who is secretary. The Secretary of State, the At-
torney-General and State Treasurer. The diplomas ot this col-
lege constitute life State certificates
i take pleasure in inserting the following letter from the
President, Prof. H. Noel Felkel :
DeFuniak Springs, Fla., December 30, 1891.
Hon. A. J. Russell, State Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion, Thllakassee, Fla. :
Sib — I have the honor to submit the following as a re-
port of the State Normal College located at this place :
The attendance for the present scholastic year has, all
things considered, been most encouraging, for 'while the total
number enrolled is not so great as last year, the daily average
has been better than at any oi her period in the his »ory of the
institution. At this time twelve counties are represented in the
school. I am satisfied, however, that with more extensive ad-
vertising it would be possible to have students from every
county in the State and it is hoped that the legislature in mak-
ing future appropriations to the college will provide for the
expense of advertising in such manner that the people of the
whole State may be informed as to the advantages offered by
Notwithstanding the growth of the institution and the
consequent increased demands for a larger appropriation, the
last legislature did not grant as much as was allowed in pre-
vious years, and it is easy to understand that we are greatly
hampered iu oar efforts to make the school as successful as
we had wished. But we are nevertheless doing most excel-
lent work, work that must ultimately have a very great influ-
ence in the educational development of the State. Our stu-
dents show themselves thoroughly interested in their studies
and it may truthfully be said that the spirit of the school is
one of industry and earnest effort.
The school is provided with a commodious dormitory, so
that we have been able to provide accommodations for all
students that came to us from abroad. The minimum board
at the dormitory is ten dollars per calendar month. Many
students, however, bos rd themselves at a much lower rate.
The apparatus — chemical, physical, mathematical and as-
tronomical — is in good condition, and though not so complete
as it should be, we are enabled with the pieces provided to il-
lustrate many of the most important scientific truths. It is
a fair estimate to value the apparatus belonging to the school
at six hundred dollars.
The buildings, consisting of the dormitory, the president's
residence and the college building proper, are all in good con-
dition and all insured against loss by fire.
The total valne of the property belonging to the school,
including buildings, furniture and apparatus, is seven thou-
sands dollars. Respectfully submitted,
H. N. F ELK EL.
THE FLORIDA NORMAL \N!i INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE.
This i« a college for colored youth of both sexes who de-
.. to be prepared for teaching in the public fchools for the
>OUth of their race, was founded by the State in 1887, and is
supported by annual appropriations made by the legislature ;
it has since become the recipient of one-half the amount ap-
propriated by congress under what is known as the Morrill
Bill, beginning with $15,000.00 and increasing each succeed-
ing year $1,000 00 until the appropriation shall reach the sum
of $25,000.00 when the fund becomes permanent at that sum.
1 1; it is an academic department, a normal department,
an agricultural department, and an industrial training
department. It is situated upon one of the commanding
hills surrounding the city of Tallahassee and sloping back to
the woodlands to the South ; has an ample farm area, fruit
groves, a college building, an industrial training and labora-
tory building and commodious dormitory and barns. The
Farm is supplied with all modern implements and labor sav-
ing machines ; the laboratory with chemicals and appliances,
and the industrial training building with tools, implements,
lathes, and steam power, thus being amply ana excellently
equipped for its important work ; it has a large library of prae
tical books of reference, history, encyclopedias, etc.
Is to prepare the students who enter to go out Ed to the
field of teaching prepared to teach the books, and lrerary
knowledge, and also be thoroughly enabled to give instruction
in tool eraft, and trade work, practical, economical farming,
the dairy, and care of Stock. Every male student, is required
to take the course in theoretical and practical farming in the
school and field, and barn, and every female the course so far
as the farm housewifery goerfn the agricultural course and in
the dairy from the udder to the creamery and butter making 5
in the general laundry, mangling department, and house-
keeping, and the abiding hope for this institution is that
Florida will have in the very near future teachers to the ma-
nor born, of the negro race, who shall be able to teach the
young a practical, and thorough training fitting them for the
more essentia and useful avenues of life.
The following letter from the president will give further
Tallahassee, Fla., December 30, 1891.
Hon. A. J. Bu&sell, State Superintendent Public Instruction,
Tallahassee, Fla. :
Sir — I beg leave to submit the following report relative
to the Florida State Normal and Industrial College for col-
ored studente :
At the close of the last session, the institution was re
moved from its original location on College Hill to "High-
wood," a fine and commanding site overlooking Tallahns-ee.
A princely manor house, a fine type of the mansion of ante
beUum days, crowns the apex of the hill on which the building
is situated ; ancient massive oaks, gnarled in branch and stem
and festooned with moss, rare shrubs, graceful plants and ex-
quisite flowers render the spot just su -h an one as ih • fancy
might well picture as the retreat t r > which the Gods of classic
mythology were wont to resort fur council and merriment.
The manor house, with its spacious rooms anri halls, is used
for recitations and girls' dormitories. A hall for the mechan-
ic arts, seventy-two by thirty-six feet, is situated west of the
manor house ; twenty by ten feet of it is reserved for a labor-
atory. West of the hall are barns ; south of these is the boys'
dormitory building. With the exception of the main struc
ture and the bamB, the two other buildings and all substantial
improvements on the grounds have been made since the school
took possession of the premises on the 28th May, 1891,
The magnificent and handsome manor house and the other
houses harmonizing therewith, the lovely grounds, the pictur-
esque scenery of hill and dale rising in gentle succession until
lost in the haze of the distant horizon — all these have had
their marked effect in making the institution still more pop-
ular with, and attractive to the race for whom it was founded .
Oar registered enrollment is sixty-eight, and were the
terms of admission unrestricted as to age and scholarship,
we should soon be overcrowded ; as it is, it is not likely that
we shall be able to accommodate at least all the female appli-
cants with board and lodging next year. Our mechanical de-
partment was formally opened the latter part of November*
owing to the late arrival of the tools. These implements of
industry are of the very latest and most approved patterns.
I do not think I hazard too much in saying that our mechan-
ical department is one of the best, if not the best equipped in
a school of this kind in the South. Both the novelty of hand-
ling, and the acquisition of knowledge in the use or tools,
serve as strong incentives with the boys in this line of our op-
erations. Many already display taste, while all show com-
mendable progress. When the engine, which is now being set
in place, i-hall have been put in operation, as a motor power,
we shall feel like indulging in a bit of pride in feeling that we
are fairly on tiie road to produce teachers for the State of
Florida, armed and equipped in brain and brawn to train their
youthful charges aright.
K During the summer, we raised an abundance of three va-
rieties of millet, grain and fodder com, peas, sweet potatoes,
and bay, by far more than is needed for our wants. With the
exception of the corn, due to french, which came out during
cultivation, all our experiments of every kind proved success-
ful. We are at present experimenting on an arctic grass from
which we expect good results, as a winter feed for stock.
All we have accomplished within a year since the removal
of the institution to "HiLihwood" would seem to point to hap-
pier results in the future, both for the colored race and for the
agricultural and other industrial interests of Florida.
Our normal school work, the chief objective end of the
school, grows steadily in interest and success. The first
graduating class will go out into the world with the close of
the session, the forerunners, we trust, of many similar bodies-
With thanks to Providence for achievements had, thus
far, and with a strong abiding faith in con tinned prosperity of
our arduous, but very necessary work.
I have the honor, respectfully, to submit this report.
T. D* S. Tucker.
INSTITUTE FOB BLIND AND DEAF MUTES.
This noble school for these afflicted and unfortunate
youths, located near the city of St. Augustine, is entirely sup-
ported by the appropriations annually made by the legisla-
ture. It is one of the greatest blessings resulting from the
liberal system of education Florida is affording her youtb.
Fifty of these unfortunate children of both races and
sexes are receiving an education now at this institution.
Tuition, board and clothing are furnished free of charge
by the State ; the course of instruction given is as near that
of the public schools as possible in the literary department,
while carpentry and cabinet work, printing and truck gar-
dening are taught the seeing boys, and house work, needle
work and other work adapted to the seeing girls ; the blind
are taught mu.-ic. bead work, and it is designed to Wach them
also basket and broom making. A neat little paper is now
printed and regularly issued by the pupils of the institute
under the direction of their foreman, who is also a deaf mute.
It is hoped that by the school census now in process of being
taken of all youth of the school age that the post office ad-
dress of all parents and guardians of blind or deaf mute chil-
dren will be obtained, so that the proper parties may place
themselves in' correspondence with them or vian them, and
induce them to send their afflicted children to the school that
they may enjuy this great privilege and in some part be com-
pensated fur the deprivation of their senses. The faculty, un-
der the lead of Prof. Wm. A. Caldwell, area devoted, admira-
bly qualified band of sympathetic workers and the value of
their influence with these nfllicted children of the State can
only be measured by Him who knoweth all things.
The following from Prof. Caldwell will give further in-
St. Augustine, Fla., December 31, 1891.
To the Son. A. J, Russell, Stute Superintendent of Public In-
struction, ex-officio Secretary of the Board of Managers of
the Florida Institute for the Deaf and the Blind.
Sir— Id accordance with custom, I present herewith a state-
ment of this school's progress during the past year. The ses-
sion closed last June with thirty-seven pupils in attendance,
twenty-four in the white department and thirteen in the col-
ored. There had been four others in attendance during the
session, but they were called home by the sickness of rela-
tives or from other causes before the close of the term. These
with the new pupils who have entered this term, make the to-
tal number forty-nine enrolled during the year 1891. I re-
gret to say that seven of these pupils, present last term, have
not retorned. Two of the seven were not expected back, one
being over twenty -one and the other having been dismissed.
The remaining five should be here under instruction and I
have also been disappointed by the non-appearance of several
new pupils, whose parents had promised to send them. It is
but natural that the father and mother of an afflicted child
should cherish an especial affection for that one, and should
dread separation from it. And yet to us, who look ahead to
mature years of that deaf or blind child and think of the time
when he must face the world alune, ihe act of refusing them
an education seems but little short of criminal. A parent
who would cut off his child's arm or otherwise maim him
physically, would be regarded with horror by the public ; yet
the neglect of having a deaf or blind child educated, is an
even greater cruelty to him than mere physical injury would
be. It must be admitted that there is a kind of aversion to
schools of this kind, and it is directly traceable to the nnfor-
tunate nime of "asylum," which was adopted by the flr«4 in-
stitutions for the deaf established in America. The men who
were active in founding these schools soon foresaw the mis-
apprehension which was certain to arise from the use of that
title, and hastened to correct it, so far as lay within their
power. But the name has gone into popular usage ai^l wi*]
probably continue there. As a consequence schools for the
deaf and the blird are associated in the public mind, with lu-
natic asylums, homes for the idiotic and reformatory institu-
tions, and it is hard indeed to make some understand that our
work is simply and purely educational.
The pupils enrolled d uring the year are from the follow-
ing counties : Alachua, 1 ; Brevard, 3 ; Duval, 1 ; Escambia,
1 ; Gadsden, 1 ; Hamilton, 1 ; Jackson, 4 ; Jefferson, 1 : Lake,
I ; Levy,l ; Marion, 10 ; Madison, 1 ; Nassau, 2 ; Orange, 1 ;
Pasco 2 ; Polk,. 1 ; St. Johns, 3 ; Suwannee, I ; Washington,
] ; total, 49.
Fifteen of these were colored and thirty-four white : nine
blind, and forty-one deaf, one boy being both deaf and blind.
Miss McMillan resigned her position as teacher of articu-
lation last year at the close of the term, much to my surprise.
She had been a faithful teacher and was greatly loved by her
pupils. On* teaching force was quite limited in numbers last
year, owing to the small appropriation, but the provision
made by the legislature has enabled us to add to our number
of instructors and to do much more effective work tban was
possible last year. It is generally agreed among teachers of
the deaf that every child should be afforded an opportunity to
learn to speak," and this is one aim of this school. It is not
in my opinion less important to admit that all deaf children
cannot profitably be taught by the oral method. Impressed
with these truths, I have arranged our work in the depart-
ment for the deaf as follows : Half of the daily session, the
white pupils are under the instruction of Mrs. Rosa Kceler, an
experienced and successful teacher of articulation, during the
same time the pupils of the colored department are being
taught the use of language by the manual (or so called sign)
system, by Miss Oakley Bockie, a lady who has had no previ-
ous experience, in teaching the deaf, but who filled the posi-
tion! of assistant matron last year, and made good use of the
opportunity thus afforded of acquainting herself with the work
of manual instruction. After recess each day, these ladies
exchange places, and by this means every chM has daily
training in speech and yet does not have to depena upon that
as his only way of securing an education. In addition to
this, there is one class of small children in the white depart-
ment who remain during the entire session in charge of their
teacher, Miss Olive Hart, a lady who comes to us highly re-
commended from the Rochester fchool.
Miss Sims continues in charge of the blind pupils, alter-
nating from one department to the other — not a desirable
method, but the number of blind children is so small as not at
present to justify the employment of more than one teacher.
In the industrial department, type-setting and printing
have been introduced, and under the instruction of Mr. John
Finnerty, our boys are making excellent progress in the
"art preservative." Instruction also continues in the car-
penter shop and the photographic rooms. During the past
year, many improvements have been made on the buildings
and about the grounds. The health of pupils and officers
has been excellent, there having been almost no sickness dur-
ing the entire year. While this exemption from disease is
doubtless due in part to the regular life led at the institute,
still it is equally certain that much of it is to be credited to
the healthful ness of this locality.
WSI. A. CiXDWELL,
A BEJOEMATORY SCHOOL,
To complete our excellent system of public education,
we seed now only a Reformatory School, with farm and shops
as well as the books, into which the tainted and vicious youth
of our cities, towus and villages may be placed, and while be-
ing educated bo trained also morally that they may leave tbe
school prepared to enter upon a good useful citizenship. Snch
a school would be in the interest of true economy in that it
would relieve the public treasury greatly of that most horri-
ble expense of tbe jails and State prison, from which rarely
ever comes any other return but hardened criminals and
abandoned hope, bat to return to prison for deeper and more
Exceedingly profitable and improving Teachers' Insti-
tutes and Summer Normal Schools have been held during the
school year, and immediately after the closing of the schools,
in most cases.
These have been organized and conducted by the County
Boards of Public Instruction and the County Superintendents;
competent instructors have been selected and employed and
the result has been patent in the work of the school a from
the beginning of tbe present school year. The progress and
advance of these counties in which these Institutes have been
held is indisputable evidence of the benefit resulting from
them, and proof that they should be held in every county
every year, or in groups of counties contiguous to each other.
These counties holding them as reported to this office
are : Escambia, Holmes, Washington, Jefferson, Suwannee,
Columbia, Bradford, Alachua, both for white and negro
teachers separate, Marion, Volusia, Putnam, Orange, Polk,
Manatee, Lafayette and Levy. Length of term ranging from
two weeks to two months.
ARBOR OAT, JANUARY 8, 1891.
In obedience to your proclamation setting apart the 8th
day of January, the anniversary of the battle of New Orleans,
under Gen. Andrew Jackson (" Old Hickory "), I issued a cir-
cular letter to each county superintendent urging a hearty
participation in the exercises of the day by all the schools,
and prepared and sent out a programme of exercises as such,
suggestive of the order and lessons of the day.
I have received reports from fifteen counties ; doubtless
many other counties observed the day but their superinten-
dents overlooked the matter of reporting. These report 2T6
schools participating, number of pupils 8,924, number of pa-
trons present 1,943, number of trees planted 2,711. The State
institutions engaging in the exercises of the day were the
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, the State Nor-
mal College at DeFuniak Springs, the State Normal and
Industrial College for Negro Students. One of the bappieBt
results of Arbor Day in Florida is the beautiful rows of
thrifty oaks and stately magnolias which now adorn and
beautifully shade the campus of the Agricultural and Mechan-
ical College at Lake City. The people, school officers, teach-
ers and pupils are pleased with the day, its usefulness and
For detailed information, financial, statistical and other-
wise, 1 refer yon to the tables at the close, which, compared
with the report for 1889-90 up to September 30, will at once
show you the material growth and increase of the whole
I cannot refrain from again addressing to Tour Excel-
lency my sincere thanks for the warm sympathy and support
so generously given me in my arduous and responsible work,
and heartily congratulate j t ou upon the prosperity, growth
and improvement of the public school system of Florida dur-
ing your administration.
ALBERT J. RUSSELL,
State Superintendent Public Instruction,
Prepared by the State Superintendent or Public
Instruction and Adopted ^y the State
Board or Education.
Regulation' 1, — Qualifications. — Persons, to be eligi-
ble to appointment to offices in his department must be
well endorsed as possessing, substantially, the following
"They are personally known to us as citizens of good
moral character, upright, responsible, possessing a fair
education, and desirous of extending the benefits of free pub-
lie instruction to all classes of youth. As officers, they will
be found competent, impartial and faithful in the performance
of their duties. For these reasons we commeod them for ap-
Regulation 2.— School Supervisors will be governed,
in thf general management of their affairs, under the direc-
tions of the Board of Public Instruction of the county.
TIME OF ISSUING CERTIFICATES.
Regulation 3. — Although a Board of Public Instruc-
tion may examine teachers and grant certificates, at any time
or authorize the County Superintendent to do so, which may
continue in force in the county for one year from date, yet it
may b^ found desirable to fix upon certain days and places at
which this particular duty will be attended to. Certificates
may be issued to expire within the year, to correspond with
the times of holding the meetings. By such an arrangement,
both the board and teachers would be accommodated.
Ample notice should be given of all such meetings by
the County Superintendents, so that every teacher, or person
desirous of teaching, may have the opportunity of preparing
for the examination.
Regulation ±. — All applicants for First Class or State
Certificates, must apply through. County. Superintendents,
under whom they are employed, and have the endorsement of
both the Superintendent and Chairman of the County Board
of Public Instruction in every case.
AU teachers applicants for examination with a view to
obtaining certificates, must he examined in the School Laws
of Florida in reference to State Board of Education, State
Superintendent of Public Instruction, County Boards of Pub-
lie Instruction, County Superintendents, and teacher's duties
Examinations will be conducted at, or during, County
Institutes as far as possible.
RiGtTLAMON 5. — Teacher's Certificates of the First
Class will be granted by the State Superintendent of Public
Instruction to eminently successful teachers of the second
class who, on examination, answer 85 per cent, of the questions
submitted in the branches usually taught in high schools.
Graduates of normal schools may receive First Class
Certificates without examination, who hold diplomas from
colleges of undoubted reputation and other colleges in which
Pedagogics are taught. No exception will be made to this
regulation except the State Superintendent shall have strong
and satisfactory reasons for the same.
Regulation 6. — Third and Second Class Certificates
will be issued by the County Boards of Public Instruction
based upon the following;
Any person, to be considered a teacher in the meaning
of the school law, or entitled to compensation for services or
any of the privileges and immunities of a teacher, must, at the
time of performing the services or claiming the immunities
hold a teacher's certificate unimpaired by suspension, revoca-
tion or limitation.
Eligirilht. — A candidate for teaching, to be eligible
to an examination, must produce satisfactory evidence of
being of Btrictly temperate habits and maintaining a good
1st. To be able to read intelligently from any school
reader in common use, and properly teach the same.
2d. To spell correctly the words of any ordinary
3d. To be able to write well and teach the same.
4th. To Bolve readily the questions involving the rules
of arithmetic, to square root, and to explain the principles on
which their solution depends.
5th. To have a general knowledge of geography; as the
location and boundaries of continents ; the relative positions
of the principle countries, oceans, seas, and rivers ; the
boundaries and capitals of the United States and of several
States and Territories, and tne counties and rivers of Florida
6th. To have a general knowledge of the history of the
"United States and of the State of Florida
7th, To have a good practical knowledge of school
organizations, classification, management and discipline, and
of the arts of interesting youth and imparting instrnction.
Rule. — No certificate will be issued to applicants who, on
examination, fail to answer 75 per cent, of the questions
submitted in the above branches for a Third Class Certificate.
The following for a Second Class Certificate:
Second Class. — In addition to the foregoing qualifications
a candidate for a Second Class Certificate must, on examina-
tion, be able —
1. To read with ease and accuracy. ^
2. To write a plain, free hand, and teach the same,
S. To apell correctly.
4. To solve readily the questions in any practical arith-
metic in common use.
5. To have a good knowledge of geography.
6. To be familiar with the English Grammar, so as to ap-
ply its principles correctly in composing, spelling and puncu-
ating a letter, or an ordinary sentence.
T. To have a good knowledge of the outlines of general
history, and especially that of the United States and of Flor-
8. To be acquainted with the elements of book keeping.
9. To understand and be able to explain the principles
which underlie the branches taught.
10. To understand well the proper organization, classifi-
cation, management and discipline of a school, the improved
methods of teaching, and possess good sell-control.
No applicant will be awarded a certificate, who, on exam-
ination, fails to answer 80 per cent, of the questions pro-
posed in the above branches.
Regulation 7. — The State Board of Education are
deeply impressed with the fact that the large majority of the
children in attendance upon the public schools are the chil-
dren of the poorer people, and will fill the large and impor-
tant classes of farmers, workmen, mechanics and artisans of
the State, and that to impart to them only the knowledge to
be derived from the school books, excellent and necessary as
it is, will but illy equip them for the sphere of life to which
in Providence and circumstances they are very sure to be
called, and are still more impressed with the necessity of im-
parting to them some knowledge (to the boys especially) of
the useful and necessary tools and implements used in the arts
and trades, and to the girls some training in sewing, cookery
and housewifery in general by simple illustrative lectures or
talks upon their use, and the general principles involved, so
that a taste may be cultivated for these very useful and im-
portant vocations in life, and pome knowledge imparted of
them, but mainly to impress them with a true and proper con-
ception of the honor and dignity of honest labor. County
Superintendents and Boards of Public Instruction are urgently
and specially called upon to give their earnest attention to
this very important feature of school work and instruction.
Regulation 8. — The evil of intemperance abroad in the
land demands the attention uf all true men and women every-
where, that its tide may be turned back, and the great social
evil abated, therefore the State Board of Education call upon
all County Superintendents and County Boards of Public In-
struction to see that the pupils are from time to time, as the
regular work and duties of the school will, permit, Impressed
with the evils flowing from the use of intoxicants and nar-
cotics morally, physically, socially and financially, so that a
wholesome conception of the evil and ruin wrought by them
may be had by every pupil.
Regulation 9.— As the spirit of the school law clearly
intends to prevent entanglement at all possible by contract-
ing or bargaining among members of the County Boards of
Public Instruction, therefore the State Board of Education
would most earnestly admonish all members of these Boards
to entirely refrain from the employment ot persons in any
manner who are Dearly allied to them by the ties of relation-
ship, specially of a close nature, and would especially suggest
to those who in the past have been thus situated to free them-
selves at once of the entanglement, and that in the future no
one will be recommended for appointment in any relation in
the school work who contemplates such employment.
A very considerable part of the dissatisfaction which does
exist in some school neighborhoods is created by this condi-
tion of affairs, and the general cause of educaiion in the State
must be relieved of it.
Regulation 10. — All Loacbers should of their mvn pur-
pose seek from time to time to advance the i-lass of their cer-
tificates by diligent- and persistent study and the constant
reading of the hest journals of school work, and books treat-
ing methods, discipline and government of the school*, and
so pass from the lowest to the highest grade of cirtificate, and
carry with it the increase <1 capacity for the true work of the
County Superintendents discovering a disposition on the
part of certain leathers to remain content with any certificate
they may be fortunate enough to obtain, exhibiting no desire
to rise higher or to become better qualified for their impor-
tant work, should at once report the same to the Board of
Public Insttuction and recommend their removal from the
corps of teachers in the county.
The authority for making these Regulations will be found
in the School Law Pamphlet, pages 7 and 8, section 13, clauses
5th and 11th.
Table No. 1
umbor of White
umber of Col-
385. 25 1
Santa Rosa. . .
•Token from Report of lB'JU,
Table No. 3.
Calhoun . , ,
Hamilton . . . .
Hernando . . . ,
Bnvrannoe . . .
% 4,393, MS !ffi
4,81 J. 844 33
1.S3JS 893 96
1,080,01 <0 00
1,489 ,090 00
$ mm m
$ 8,017 20 1
2,095 10 ....
1,701 70 . .
1,991 00 :
17,00 I 00
MM B I
188,898.910 44' 189% |46',334 48 l 888,928 93 l $79,9B6 00't 409,947 10 $90,300 83
I 6.380 00
' JU035 66
1,040 Of i
Table No. 3.
$ 39,417 84
$ 1,800 00
$ 2,299 62
Gadsden. . „
Tahls No. 4.
•Taken from Report of 1*90.
•Tale county Tailed to report.
Table No. 5.— Census of School Population, 1888.
Bradford . . .
Holme* ... .
Jelftrsnn . . .
Putnam ... _
Totals I ]29,U2
87 J I
l. ( ,HH
1. 400 1
1 . '.' It
113,817 65,812' 63,300 1 68.514 60,5081 83
st 84B8 OJtltt
SUPERINTENDENTS OF COMMON SCHOOLS.
Hillsborough , . ,
St. Johns.... ...
Santa Rosa .
W. N. SHEATB
G.R. Blaik ,..'. .
Joseph L. Hill.! . . .
J, H. McClellas. . .
£. A. Harbison
E E. Rankin
E, G. Persons
John Clewinson . . .
H. E Carletoh
Joel D Mead
N. B. Cook-
Wm. T. Mableb
O. E. L Allison
Geo. J. Graham ,
Dk J. R. Temple. . .
L W. Buchhql?..-..
WniTMiLL Cubht. . ,
Wm. M. Fabbior. ..
J. A Walker
John C Compton...
D. 0. Kaktz.
N. W Eppes
S helton Phillips..
T. J. Gbegoby
R. L. Williams
E. M. Graham
Marion L. Payne... .
C. P. Kemp
H. L. .Mattaib.,,.,
John. T. Beees
C. A. Cabson
R. M. Ray
8. S. N 1 117 . A (" k
Geo. W. Cpbtis. ..,
A W. MlZELL
John R Kelly
K. 6 C. Pebeibs
R. B. Pi.RBES
L L Charles
Green Cove Springs,
Craw ford vi lie.